Document Type : Original Research Article

Authors

1 Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Education and Research Center of Science and Biotechnology, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

2 Pharmaceutical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Objective(S): Implant-related infections are disastrous complications in the clinic. One recent strategy to reduce the rate of infection is using the bioactive coating with an antibiotic. The purpose of these bioactive surfaces is to prevent bacterial adhesion to the implant and, consequently, the development of biofilm. In this study, vancomycin-loaded polymeric coating on implants was prepared using the electrospinning technique.                       
Methods: We selected polymers, chitosan (CS), and poly ethylene oxide (PEO) to prepare nanofibers. Then for the better attachment of nanofibers on the implant, the first coated the implant with thin film CS-gelatin. The prepared coatings were characterized using Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and FT-IR spectroscopy. The antibacterial effectiveness of vancomycin-loaded polymeric coating and the bacterial adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated in vitro. An elution study was performed with UV-Vis spectroscopy to determine the release behaviour of the vancomycin from the polymeric coating.
Results: The morphology of the vancomycin-loaded polymeric coating implant exhibited nanofibers with diameters 70-130 nm. The vancomycin-loaded polymeric coating titanium significantly reduced the adhesion of the staphylococcus aureus compared with bare implants in vitro. The release of vancomycin showed an initial vancomycin burst effect followed by a slow release. 36%of the drug in first two hours, 70% in first 24 hours and 96% in the first week released.
Conclusions: The vancomycin-loaded polymeric coating, present many advantages and may be considered to prevent and treat implant-associated infections by impeding bacterial adherence to the implant surface or reducing the concentration of bacteria near the implant.

Graphical Abstract

Implants modified with polymeric nanofibers coating containing the antibiotic vancomycin

Keywords

1. Tobin EJ. Recent coating developments for combination devices in orthopedic and dental applications: A literature review. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 2017;112:88-100.
2. Darouiche RO. Antimicrobial approaches for preventing infections associated with surgical implants. Clinical infectious diseases,2003;36 (10):1284-1289.
3. Song Z, Borgwardt L, Høiby N, Wu H, Sørensen TS, Borgwardt A. Prosthesis infections after orthopedic joint replacement: the possible role of bacterial biofilms. Orthopedic reviews, 2013;5 (2):65-71.
4. Rocha JLL, Kondo W, Baptista MIDK, Cunha CAd, Martins LTF. Uncommon vancomycin: induced side effects. Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases,2002;6 (4):196-200.
5. Micek ST. Alternatives to vancomycin for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections. Clinical infectious diseases,2007;45 (3): 184-190.
6. Zhang L, Yan J, Yin Z, Tang C, Guo Y, Li D, Wei B, Xu Y, Gu Q, Wang L. Electrospun vancomycin-loaded coating on titanium implants for the prevention of implant-associated infections. International journal of nanomedicine, 2014;9: 3027-3036.
7. Smith JK, Bumgardner JD, Courtney HS, Smeltzer MS, Haggard WO. Antibiotic‐loaded CS film for infection prevention: A preliminary in vitro characterization. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials,2010;94 (1):203-211.
8. Garg K, Bowlin GL. Electrospinning jets and nanofibrous structures. Biomicrofluidics, 2011;5 (1): 13403-13419.
9. Martins A, Reis R, Neves N. Electrospinning: processing technique for tissue engineering scaffolding. International Materials Reviews, 2008;53 (5):257-274.
10. Li X, Cui R, Liu W, Sun L, Yu B, Fan Y, Feng Q, Cui F, Watari F. The use of nanoscaled fibers or tubes to improve biocompatibility and bioactivity of biomedical materials. Journal of Nanomaterials, 2013;2013: 1-16.
11. Dutta PK, Dutta J, Tripathi V. Chitin and CS: Chemistry, properties and applications, 2004.
12. Queen H. Electrospinning CS-based nanofibers for biomedical applications, 2006.
13. Lee DW, Lim H, Chong HN, Shim WS. Advances in CS material and its hybrid derivatives: a review. The Open Biomaterials Journal,2009;1 (1):10-20.
14. Ignatova M, Manolova N, Rashkov I. Novel antibacterial fibers of quaternized CS and poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) prepared by electrospinning. European polymer journal, 2007;43 (4):1112-1122.
15. Tvl HB, Vidyavathi M, Kavitha K, Sastry T, RV SK. Preparation and evaluation of ciprofloxacin loaded CS-gelatin composite films for wound healing activity. International Journal of Drug Delivery,2010;2 (2):173-182.
16. Cheng M, Deng J, Yang F, Gong Y, Zhao N, Zhang X. Study on physical properties and nerve cell affinity of composite films from CS and gelatin solutions. Biomaterials, 2003;24 (17):2871-2880.
17. Bhattarai N, Edmondson D, Veiseh O, Matsen FA, Zhang M. Electrospun CS-based nanofibers and their cellular compatibility. Biomaterials, 2005;26 (31):6176-6184.