Cyclodextrins: Concept to applications, regulatory issues and challenges

Document Type: Review Paper

Authors

1 School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, Singhania University, Pacheri Bari, Jhunjhunu, Rajasthan-333 515, India

2 Southern Institute of Medical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, SIMS Group of Institutions, Mangaldas Nagar, Vijyawada Road, Guntur-522 001, Andhra Pradesh, India

3 School of Health Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The Assam Kaziranga University, Koraikhowa, NH 37, Jorhat-785006, Assam, India

Abstract

Background: Solubility properties of drugs intensify a crucial role during the formulation development process. Aqueous solubility is one of the most significant factors concerning drug bioavailability analysis. Cyclodextrins [CDs] are supportive, competent excipients, required an ever-rising way to disguise unwanted pharmaceutical characteristics, exclusively poor aqueous solubility. Main Text: CDs are actively useful in medicinal industries for copious purposes, including improving drug solubility, safety, physicochemical stability, and bioavailability. Different solubility enhancement methods can resolve several approaches to trouble insolubility. Conclusions: Among all, the reported one complexation technique has been incorporated as one of the imperative and the exigent concept, to enhance the solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs. The standard CDs and their explicit derivatives are quite essential in enabling pharmaceutical excipients, which improve the aqueous solubility of poorly soluble drugs, raise the permeability of drugs through the biological membranes, and advances the drug dissolution rate and bioavailability. This review discusses some of the findings and broad applications of CDs and their derivatives in various drug delivery areas. This review also addresses the aspects regarding the new CD-based therapeutics, possible future uses and issues, and regulatory perspective in the modern scenario.

Keywords


INTRODUCTION

Cyclodextrins have been predominantly known as complexing agents to enhance the water solubility of active compounds or moieties. These are weakly solubilized in water to boost their stability and bioavailability. Cyclodextrins are being progressively more employed in various pharmaceutical formulations in current years because of their successful approval by various regulatory agencies [1]. Villiers and Schardinger scientists in the year 1891 and 1903 reported the real foundations of cyclodextrin chemistry before 100 years ago [2]. Antoine Villiers was the first individual to invent the term cyclodextrin as crystalline dextrin. Later on, Franz Schroedinger first explained manufacturing, purification, and isolation of dextrin A and B [Cellulosines] and enzymatic conversion; cyclodextrins is obtained from the starch [3]. Later on, cyclodextrins are well known pharmaceutical excipients by pharma researchers and scientists.

In 1953, the first patent on cyclodextrins was established, and this innovation was widespread and used for different pharmaceutical formulations development [4]. The biotechnological advancement of the preceding 30 years has resulted in spectacular events in invention and a related decline in manufacturing budgets. Moreover, this contributes to the complete accessibility of extremely purified cyclodextrins and by-products of cyclodextrin, which are appropriate for utilizing in various pharmaceuticals [5]. For most of the two decades, researchers and pharmaceutical scientists have made consistent and committed efforts to discover the ideal approach to increase the bioavailability of drugs by a succeeding increase the water solubility and oral absorption of the hydrophobic drugs [6]. A more extent of novel molecules that is approximately around [~30-40%] of New Chemical Entities [NCE] has been synthesized in academia as well as in industry. The pharmaceutical fraternities suffer foremost set back because of poor water solubility because the drugs in the aqueous intestinal fluid, allows to partitioning across the epithelial cell membrane through passive diffusion. As compared to numerous issues, such as water solubility, it is crucial for the advancement of adequately secure and efficient delivery systems, as the rate of absorption, production, and the biological activity of a drug relies upon its solubility. But the amount of lipophilic molecules required for the management is reasonably elevated and can be liable to grow, specifying that a variety of drugs have modest solubility. Hence, the implementation of cyclodextrins [CDs] is one of the crucial tools obtainable to recover the solubility of water-insoluble drugs [7].

The principal and noteworthy characteristics of CDs are their potentials to alter the specific properties and uniqueness of the drug particles assisted inside their interior cavities to produce drug-inclusion complexes [8]. At present, there are more or less 30 several pharmaceutical products all over the world, including drug or CD complexes, are in the market. The rationale of this learning is to outline the relevance of using CDs to get better the solubility and also the dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs, with particular emphasis on their structural characteristics, physicochemical properties, productive processes, toxicity, derivatives, and use in the pharmaceutical industry [9]. Distinctive attributes of formulations comprising inclusion complexes include a quicker dissolution rate of drugs, retardation of drug release time, efficient drug absorption, and better oral bioavailability and biological activity of the drugs with minimization of the frequency of drug in the dosages form [10].

CLASSIFICATION OF CYCLODEXTRINS

Cyclodextrins are mostly the adjuvant of pharmaceuticals or the excipients of formulations, which can solubilize a range of weakly soluble drugs through the preparation of water-soluble drug cyclodextrin complexes [11]. The α-cyclodextrin [α-CD], β-cyclodextrin [β-CD], and γ-cyclodextrin [γ-CD] are the most common naturally occurring cyclodextrins in the family of cyclic oligosaccharides having either 6, 7, or 8 [“-1,4]-linked D-glucopyranoside components respectively [12, 13]. In crystal state, especially the poor water solubility of cyclodextrins is accredited to the occurrence of comparatively tough inter-molecular hydrogen bonding [14]. The natural cyclodextrins may have exemplified the little water solubility compared to the other derivatives of cyclodextrins. In contrast, the solubility of CDs is frequently still adequate to avert the drug dissolution rate-limited drug absorption from the GIT [15]. So many scientists and researchers have made in-depth research and efforts to discover, prepare, recognize, and evaluate the important cyclodextrin derivatives of having pharmaceutical attention. These derivatives mostly include branched cyclodextrins, hydroxyl propyl derivatives β, and γ cyclodextrins, SBE-β cyclodextrin, the sulpho-butyl ether. Types of cyclodextrins and their substitution value, water solubility data, molecular weight, and suggestive bulk cost are enlisted in Table 1 [16]. The cyclodextrins are twisted like a truncated cone, slightly perfect cylindrical shape. The schematic diagram of the cyclodextrin cylindrical molecular shape has been depicted in Fig. 1.

The degradation of starch forms these by the enzyme cyclodextrin glucosyltransferase. These three in the association are named “parent cyclodextrins,” and their complexes may have to some extent partial solubility in water, most of the cases of β-cyclodextrin. Because of that, many aqueous soluble and chemically altered cyclodextrins derivatives have been synthesized in recent years. Especially the α-cyclodextrin [α-CD], β-cyclodextrin [β-CD], and γ-cyclodextrin [γ-CD] are doughnut-shaped or torus-shaped molecules with an exterior surface that are hydrophilic and central cavity having lipophilic nature. Cyclodextrins are competent enough to produce inclusion complexes throughout numerous drugs by either the entire drug molecule or a few fractions towards the cavity [17]. Different properties of cyclodextrins and their outcomes are enlisted in Table 2. Cyclodextrins can form water-soluble inclusion complexes of weakly-soluble drugs of lipophilic nature by compelling on numerous lipophilic components of the drugs into the central position in aqueous characteristics of drugs [18]. This molecular encapsulation influences the solubility and dissolution rate of the drug substances [19].

Different physicochemical properties values for alpha-cyclodextrins, beta-cyclodextrins, and gamma-cyclodextrins are illustrated in Table 3. In dilute liquefied solution, mixture bound drug substances show inactive equilibrium with drug molecules, which are free through configuration rates and dissociation in essence to the diffusion-controlled limits or confines. As compared to linear dextrin’s, CDs are quite less susceptible to enzymatic degradation, more stabilization of supersaturated solutions containing drugs, and also used as superior complexing or sometimes solubilizing agents because of the cyclic architecture of CDs [20].

FORMATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CYCLODEXTRIN-INCLUSION COMPLEXES

Various philosophies of complexation along with cyclodextrins have gained superior recognition in current years in the industry for solubility enhancement and also the dissolution rate of weakly soluble drugs. CDs tend to solubilize the hydrophobic drug substances throughout the configuration of water-soluble inclusion complexes in general, in case of an aqueous solution. Usually, there will be no formation of covalent bonds or breaking of relationships throughout the complex fabrication. The drug molecules in the complex are in the equilibrium state, reaching the liberation of free particles inside the solution very quickly. The hydrophobic or lipophilic portions of more exceptional units have a somewhat better affinity towards the hydrophobic CD cavity as compared to hydrophilic ones. As the CDs contain an interior non-polar gap and hydroxyl [-OH] groups placed on the surface, the hydrophobic compounds inclusion arises systematically through hydrophobic interactions among the guest molecules and the cyclodextrin cavity walls. Dipole-dipole interactions, as well as transient electric dipole moments or Van der Walls force of attraction, can be concerned with the assembly of the guest as superlative forces. In association with this copious factors and effects are incorporated in the cyclodextrin complexations. There are numerous significant techniques available to acquire cyclodextrin–guest complex formation depending on the properties of the guest and the nature of the chosen cyclodextrins like co-precipitation method for non-water-soluble substances, lyophilization or freeze-drying for water-soluble guests, kneading method for weakly soluble guests, spray drying for thermostable molecules as well as folic acid encapsulation in cyclodextrins as a current implementation. The application of cyclodextrins [CDs] and their active derivatives to encapsulate biologically active substances can shield the compounds from ecological circumstances and enhance the water solubility for raising their capability to operationalize the manufactured goods.

In some cases, there is a necessitate enhancing water solubility of β-cyclodextrin [β-CD] by adding up the [-OH] groups upon the β-cyclodextrin exterior portion. Fig. 2 displays the schematic diagram illustrating drug-cyclodextrin inclusion complex or guest-host reaction, which can take place between a guest molecule and host [CDs] through mentioned important methods, e.g., kneading process, co-precipitation, spray drying, heating and its optimized confirmation by several analytical techniques such as UV, DSC, etc. In kneading method, especially during configuration of CDs inclusion complex, the encapsulation of compounds like omega-3 fatty acids and ibuprofen in thymol essential oil and CDs-folic acid interaction in spray drying, etc., are chosen examples. However, it signifies vigorously the effects of CDs on the drug concerning its solubility and dissolution profiles [21, 22].

PHASE SOLUBILITY ANALYSIS

Phase-solubility investigation corresponds to the outcomes of complexing agents on the compound, which is being solubilized. It is a conventional strategy to find out not only the importance of the stability constant but also to deliver imminently into the equilibrium stoichiometry. The phase solubility review is constructed by assessing the effect of the CD on the apparent solubility of the drug [D]. A phase-solubility profile analysis where the drug [Substrate] solubility in terms of moles/liter is constructed concerning the molar CD concentration [Ligand] and is one of the typical mainstream techniques employed. The realistic and phenomenal inference of phase-solubility assessment was developed by the eminent scientist Higuchi and Connors in their revolutionary work published in 1964 and, afterward, have been further reviewed by Connons. Various types of behaviors will be recognized based on the outlines of the produced phase-solubility associations. Phase-solubility representations broadly drop into two main types: A and B. As it is clearly understood that phase-solubility analysis of the consequence of complexing agents on the substance being solubilized is a conventional concept to find out not only the steadiness constant value but also to give imminent into the stoichiometry of the balance. Here, Fig. 3 intensifies the graphical representation of CD concentration upon dissolved drug concentration [Phase solubility relationships]. That is all about the influence of CDs may have an impact on the drug’s solubility and the drug profiles categorization.

Here, the A-type phase solubility outline is requisite when the drug solubility enhances with the subsequent rising of CD’s concentration throughout the configuration of aqueous-soluble drug or CD complexes. AL-type phase solubility relationships can be exhausted when the complex is first order concerning the Ligand and becomes first or higher-order in association with the substrate such as 1:1, 2:1, or 3:1 drug or CD complexes. AP-type phase solubility relationships can be obtained when the complex becomes first order regarding the substrate, but second or upper order concerning the ligand concentration. Similarly, AN-type phase solubility relationships may be hard to illuminate, but the pessimistic divergence from linearity can be because of the revolution in the water media. The non-uniformity or improper straightness of the phase solubility diagram containing AP and AN-type might be due to variations in the stoichiometric ratio of CD-drug inclusion complex, the drug, and CD ratio rising [AP-type] or declining [AN-type] with increasing CD concentration. B-type phase solubility relationships specify complexes’ creation with poor solubility formed in the aqueous complexation media. In stock, the water-soluble CD components produce A-type phase solubility relationships, whereas the fewest soluble natural CDs regularly produce a B-type description. In aqueous solutions solubility studies, significant spectroscopic techniques such as UV-VIS spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and NMR spectroscopy are specifically employed to detect the configuration of drug-CD complexes. Other methods, such as titration pH-potentiometer, micro-calorimetry as well as surface tension, are exceptionally used. A phase-solubility analysis, where the drug [Substrate] solubility in terms of moles/liter is allowed to plot against the molar CD [i.e., the Ligand] concentration, and it is one of the most common methods implemented [23, 24].

PROPERTIES OF CYCLODEXTRINS

The complexation efficiency [CE] or CD complexes may enhance the solubilization of the poorly water-soluble drugs by the association of the product of the experimental solubility, and its apparent solubility [S0] without the cyclodextrin [CD] and apparent stability constant [K1:1] of the drug. Different types of cyclodextrins modifications and their significance are enlisted in Table 4. By subsequent rising the “S0” value in medium containing aqueous complexation such as drug molecule ionization, the formation of salt accumulation of co-solvents, co-comp lexes creation, ternary complexes of polymers and their comprising organic acids or bases may change the crystalline nature of drugs to an amorphous form and thereby improves the solubilization of drug-cyclodextrin complexes. Techniques which can upturn K1:1 comprise adding excipients which are aqueous-soluble in water media, having equal and opposite charge connections among ionized CDs and drug substances having counter ions development of ternary complexes. Some other tools that provisionally cause the proliferation of S0 may also be implemented to formulate the perfect solid-drug/CD complexions. Due to various stipulations, it is necessary to use a little amount of cyclodextrin in the pharmaceutical dosage form. That’s the primary intent that the solubilizing efficiency of cyclodextrin plays a significant role in the case of stability constant [binding] [K 1:1]. The SE is found either from the understanding of the phase solubility relationship slope or from complex free cyclodextrin proportion. The following equation can determine the efficiency of complexation;

 (1)

Where [D–CD,] indicates the dissolved complex concentration, dissolved complex, [CD] signifies about the strength of the dissolved free cyclodextrin, and slope’ specifies the slope of the phase solubility analysis. The significance of intercept, as well as intrinsic solubility [S0], may be influenced by certain pharmaceutical excipients like polymers, preservatives, buffer salts, etc. Hence, the inherent solubility [S0] of the drug shall be lower than the detection ranges of the analytical technique employed. Practical implementation of CDs to amplify the complexation efficiency is observed in varied areas of science. The phenomenon is based on “host-guest detection property,” recognized as the production of a supramolecular complex. Recently the cyclodextrin is being used for topical formulations, pediatric iron formulations practically. The characterization of CDs can be performed using molecular recognition-based techniques, electroanalysis, chiral analytical separations, chromatographic separation methods, fluorescence, phosphorescence, nuclear magnetic resonance NMR, etc. The CDs are successfully applicable; also, the studies relate to hydrophobic effects and the fine-tune models of biological processes. All these aspects can be possibly achieved by including complex production techniques like co-precipitation [co-precipitaion along with phase solubility], freeze-drying, spray drying, etc. [25, 26].

APPLICATIONS OF CYCLODEXTRINS

The significant applications of cyclodextrins and derivatives of cyclodextrins are mainly used in pharmaceuticals, nanotechnology, biotechnology, cosmetics, catalysis, medicine, foods, textile production, toiletries, chromatographic separation, etc. CDs are incorporated in more than 50 marketed pharmaceuticals and foodstuffs globally. In addition to abundant food, cosmetics, and toiletry products, as well as over the last few years, an application of cyclodextrins is expanded into agricultural, chemical, and environmental engineering sectors [27].

CDs as permeability enhancers

CDs might also be employed as a membrane permeability elevator and stabilizing the agents apart from the solubility improvement appliance. The permissibility throughout the biological membrane is also enhanced by the occurrence of cyclodextrins [28].

CDs as oxygen or photo-sensitive drug components stabilization

Substances such as β-cyclodextrins and curcumin are employed to enhance water solubility and hydrolytic plant compounds for the chemical stability of curcumin [29].

Alteration of liquid substances to powders form

Inclusion complexes among the oil, such as cinnamon and that of cyclodextrins, was organized by the co-precipitation process in diverse ratios and transform the fluid substances into powders [30].

Defense against drug components degradation utilizing microbes

When β-cyclodextrin comes in contact and forms inclusion complexes with naproxen and niflumic acid in their liquid form to gain photochemical stability, maintain that the cyclodextrins are expressly incorporated to intensify their constancy or stability and keep away from degradations [31].

Conceal of improper smell and taste

Sometimes drugs like famotidine are allowed to form a complex with that of cyclodextrins to enhance the drug taste, together with a polymer such as HPC [32].

Cyclodextrins influential catalytic activity with visitor molecules

Sometimes aqueous soluble palladium nanoparticles are customized with covalently configured receptors of cyclodextrins. Hence, palladium nanoparticles catalytic activity may be declined accordingly [33].

Cyclodextrins in solubility enhancement of substances

The most general application of CDs is the enhancement of drug solubility in aqueous solutions. For solubility enhancement, it is the most significant concept in the case of a drug like piroxicam, which is generally weakly soluble drug. Especially to expand the solubility of piroxicam, β-cyclodextrins is added with the help of steam along with the granulation method. It leads to rising of the surface area of piroxicam and revealed into the dissolution medium [34].

In medicinal textiles

CDs added within the body or used as an innovative device, contact the outer surface of the dermis. Sometimes, used as an implantable device, mainly in the suture, threads, stents, vascular prostheses, tendons, replacements for animal skins, etc. In medicinal textiles, CDs have anti-allergic or antipsoriatic characteristics used in the surface of the body in the form of pajamas, T-shirts, trousers, socks, knee and elbow pads, etc. From a theoretical perception point of view, the configurations of temporary drug collectors on textile surfaces may be able to accompany the application of systems of matrices, polymer, and drug conjugates of polymers, lipid bodies, or liposomes, hydrogels, emulsions, etc. CDs are also used in textile fabric, composites, systems inclusions of multilayer, and new perception systems such as nanoparticles and nanosponges. The CD-based hydrogels and liposomes are most specifically available in the market, known as beacons, which is applicable in textile fabrics. Besides, this cyclodextrin also broadly can be implemented in several areas of research, such as in case of solid dosage forms, parenteral dosage forms, in case of drug solubilization, as well as the implementation of parenteral dosage form, drug solubilization [35-47].

Cyclodextrins in parenteral solutions and solid dosage forms

Some other applications of cyclodextrins are that these are highly applicable in parenteral dosage forms. The chief advantages of CDs are to interpret solutions containing injectable. Weak soluble drugs injectable cyclodextrins can be utilized in various marketed products consisting of intravenous solutions of diazepam, phenytoin sodium, itraconazole. However, the principal vibrant force for drug release from the drug-CD inclusion complexes is the single medium’s dilution. In addition to this, when injectable preparations comprising a drug or CD complexes are incorporated, allowed to mix quickly with blood plasma level along with the consequent creation of complexes lead by drug or plasma protein utilizing viable displacement effect. In stock, towards the [ADME] or pharmacokinetic studies of drugs, the drug or CD complexes encompass minor effects. Similarly, cyclodextrins are also broadly used as solubilizing agents in oral solid dosage forms. CDs can have the ability to develop the bioavailability of drugs orally by adequate enhancement of their drug solubility and dissolution rate of drugs by significantly improved permeation of drugs throughout their unstirred water layer [UWL]. CDs can mostly increase the oral absorption rate of BCS class-II drugs compared to BCS Class-I and III drugs due to less potential effect or obstruction of the absorption rate of such drugs in GI. Nowadays, several essential techniques are implemented that become functional to regulate the solid drug-CD complexes just, like, the slurry method, co-evaporation, grinding method, etc. [48-52].

Applications of CDs in diverse drug delivery system and electrochemical sensing

The CDs are effectively implemented over an assortment of specific drug delivery systems such as protein and peptide, oral, controlled or targeted, ocular, transdermal, nasal, rectal drug delivery systems. Now a day’s CDs-related materials fascinated substantial special treatment in electrochemical sensing. CD moieties could display splendid properties in aqueous solubility, molecular detection, enhancement capability, and CDs-based substances that attracted extensive courtesy in electrochemical sensing. It also analyzes simple finding mechanisms behind electrochemical sensors, and distinctive merits that rely upon CDs operationalized materials, and current developments for CDs-based supreme substances like, CDs or graphene, CDs/conducting polymers, CDs/carbon nanotubes and a range of nonmaterial’s explicitly in case of electrochemical sensing. The pharmaceutical and other critical applications of cyclodextrins are depicted in Fig. 4 [53-56].

REGULATORY STATUS, ISSUES, AND CHALLENGES OF CYCLODEXTRINS

Investigations as a regulatory standpoint suitable excipients of pharmaceuticals, just like CDs, turn into uppermost drugs [active ingredients], in particular. At the same time, they were utilized for the first instance in humans. Hence, it is crucial to recognize if an excipient of Pharmaceuticals has formerly been used in the marketed formulations. Then its concentration [ppm] or proportions or quantity in that product has to be justified. According to the USFDA standpoint of vision, several inactive ingredients of pharmaceuticals are exhausted in the marketed formulations in its corresponding website.

Similarly, the EMA has brought out and released a report on the appropriate usage of various natural Cyclodextrins and its derivatives such as alpha-CD, beta-CD, gamma-CD, and SBE βCD, hydroxyl propyl-beta-CD, and also lipophilic cyclodextrins like RMβCD, in pharmaceutical products. According to USP/NF and JPC, dissertations, or monographs, the commonly used natural cyclodextrins are α-CD, β-CD, and γ-CD. Especially the USP/NF and Ph. Eur., have published the monographs for HP βCD and SBE β-CD and α-CD, β-CD and HP-βCD respectively. Furthermore, as food additives on the WHO website and in the FDA’s GRAS list, mainly, the three useful natural CDs are frequently employed as per current regulatory status. However, sometimes the regulatory agencies like FDA, Japanese, and European regulatory bodies become doubtful about the usage of CDs in pharmaceutical dosages. Later on, the in-depth research and developments and accessibility of supplementary figures and the enlarging usage of CDs in pharmaceutical formulations make use of indulgence the acute and chronic diseases. At the same time, these derivatives might run into less regulatory resistance [57-60].

RECENT ADVANCEMENT OF CYCLODEXTRINS

Cyclodextrin based-nanocarriers are employed in recent times to alleviate cancer or neoplastic agents. So the current scenario, as of the 21st century, the perception of connecting dual approach [nanotechnology with cyclodextrins] has emerged as a new outline or initiative to overcome the tribulations in formulation and development and dosage forms. These are intended to class II or IV of the biopharmaceutical classification system [BCS], which denotes foremost challenges. Some of the current advances include the biodegradable methoxy-poly [ethylene glycol]-poly [lactide] nanoparticles for dacarbazine in an optimal controlled delivery, BCNU based microspheres, as well as cross-linked nanocarriers suits for cytarabine. So cyclodextrin employed as an incredible alternative and driving force for numerous techniques like solubilization, co-solvency, and solid dispersion that may though enhance the bioavailability, solubility and dissolution properties of the medicaments or drug’s but at the same time undergo various demerits like lower drug loading and huge or more massive dosage. Cyclodextrin-based nanocarriers’ blows and their new therapeutics will likely step up in upcoming generations. Conversely, as these products step out of the research laboratory and into the clinics, a range of federal agencies like USFDA and US patents have to fight back in sequence to support the advancement of these products. The tremendous growth and contribution of these cyclodextrin-based therapeutic systems have ultimately been approved for human use [132-136].

Cyclodextrins are usually employed in formulations contain antifungal activity as a chemical auxiliary’s substances to obtain enhanced solubility, reliability, and other specific physicochemical characteristics of the active pharmaceutical compound. The significant biological influence of CDs is mainly used for antimycotic, fungicidal formulations. The biological activity of cyclodextrins focuses on the characteristics and synergistic effect with the antimycotic compounds. CDs stayed observed to outline inclusion complex with quite a lot of farming chemicals counting the insecticides, herbicides, repellents, fungicides, pheromones, and regulating growth, delaying germination of the seed, encapsulation of phenolic compounds, etc. Recently, cyclodextrins were functionalized in the lipase encapsulation for the biodiesel manufacture, for control release of fragrances in room fresheners or detergents, odor control in diapers, menstrual products, paper towels, and washed items, etc. [61-70].

CURRENT AND FUTURE PROSPECTIVES

The pharmaceutical and biotechnological industry includes approximately 40% NCEs [new chemical entities], which has been developed by the researchers in formulation research and developments, which are practically insoluble in water. Hence the opinion of solubility is a major confront and demanding concept for Pharma researchers and formulation scientists. The contemplation of minute water solubility is the significant vital complexity encountered with designs and enhancement of revolutionary chemical units and generic expansion of the products. An assortment of solubility improving techniques relies on properties, absorption site, and requisite dosage form properties of concerned medicament. Cyclodextrins are well-termed as pharmaceutical solubilizes of cyclic-oligosaccharides, which have been renowned as standard tools or adjuvants of pharma-formulations research and development, for the preceding two decades. In the pharmaceutical industry, nowadays, as a robust complexing agent, the cyclodextrins [CDs] have predominantly been employed to improve the aqueous solubility, stability, and bioavailability potential of drugs. The applications of CD-bearing polymers to afford the exceptional competencies for the delivery of nucleic acids is of specific interest. Studies in both living organisms, i.e., human beings and animals, have revealed that CDs can be used to make advance or enhances optimal delivery of drugs from any dosages form. Pharmaceutical research scientists are well-understood from CDs’ concepts and properties that it is widely useful for different formulation development and drug release contests for the most complicated drugs. Among the up-and-coming new chemical entities, most are poorly water-soluble drugs, impacting their optimized rate of dissolution, bioavailability, and therapeutic consequence. Inclusion complexes with CDs are the most remarkable driving force to enhance solubility and formulation design. CDs have the tendency to alter the physicochemical characteristics of drugs just as particle size, crystal engineering, solubility profile, and thereby producing an extremely aqueous soluble amorphous appearance and geometry.

CONCLUSION

Cyclodextrins are useful, functional excipients that have time-honored and achieved universal prevalent awareness and exploit now a day. The foundation for this reputation commencing as per pharmaceutical viewpoint is the competence of these resources to interconnect with inadequate aqueous-soluble drugs and drug compounds, ensuing in an increase in their apparent water solubility as CDs act as building blocks for many drug delivery systems. Some of the best instances illustrate that CD-graft-polymers are implemented, to sum up, or encapsulate the proteins. In gene remedy, CD-based nanoparticles, nanosponges, nanocarriers, etc. are utilized to boost the perfect solubility, bioavailability, and apparent drug stability profiles. However, the materials are also highly required to set up such type foundations intended for satisfactory safety profiles. Hence, CDs are broadly incorporated 40 new commercial pharmaceutical products moreover in several international regions. The novel products manifest the enduring utilization of these materials with these materials for general purposes, but that is also an alteration of bioavailability for the improvement of drugs.

COMPLIANCE WITH ETHICAL STANDARD

DECLARATIONS

Ethics approval and consent to participate: Non-applicable.

CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION

The listed authors of this manuscript have given their consent for publications.

AVAILABILITY OF DATA AND MATERIAL

Non-applicable.

COMPETING INTERESTS

The author declares there are no conflicts of notice in preparing the manuscript.

FUNDING

Non-applicable.

AUTHORS’ CONTRIBUTIONS

All listed authors have read and approved based on the individual contributions such as conceptual design, acquisition, drafting, and language editing of the manuscript.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The author is thankful to the management of Singhania University, School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, Rajasthan, India, for their ever and tireless encouragement and support.

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

CDs: Cyclodextrins

D: Drug

NCE: New Chemical Entities

API: Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients

NMR: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

HPC: Hydroxypropyl cellulose

Pd: Palladium

SBE: Sulpho Butyl Ether

MW: Molecular weight

BCS: Biopharmaceutical Classification System

FDA: Food Drug Administration

NF: National Formulary

USP: United states Pharmacopeia

WHO: World Health Organization

UWL: Unstirred Water Layer

USFDA: U.S. Food & Drug Administration

EMA: European Medicines Agency

α-CD: α-Cyclodextrin

β-CD: β-Cyclodextrin

γ-CD: γ-Cyclodextrin

HPβ-CD: 2-Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin

HPγ-CD: Hydroxypropyl-γ-cyclodextrin

CE: Complexation efficiency

SBEβ-CD: Sulpho Butyl Ether- β-Cyclodextrin

RMβ-CD: Randomly methylated β-cyclodextrin 

JPC: Japanese Pharmaceutical Codex

USP/NF: United States Pharmacopeia /National Formulary

Ph.Eur : European Pharmacopoeia

GRAS: Generally recognized as safe

DSC: Diffential Scanning Calorimetry

 

 
[2] Chowdary KPR, Srinivasan S. Effects of Cyclodextrins, Tween-80 and PVP on the Solubility and Dissolution Rate of Etoricoxib. J Pharm Sci Res. 2011; 3: 1344-1348.
[19] Rajabi O, Roshanak S, Tayyari SF. Study of structure and properties of Lidocaine: hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodxtrin inclusion complex. J PharmRes. 2011; 4: 1562-1563.
[29]. Radhouan M, Abderrahim R. Applications of cyclodextrins: formation of inclusion complexes and their characterization. Int J Adv Res. 2015; 3: 1030-1030.
[30]. Omid R, Roshanak S, Tayyari SF. Study of structure and properties of Lidocaine: hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodxtrin inclusion complex. J Pharm Res. 2011; 45: 1562-1563.
[31]. Bogdan M, Floare C, Bogdan D, Farcas SI. Photo degradation of inclusion complexes of naproxen and niflumic acid with β-cyclodextrin; National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies. Cluj-Napoca, Romania.
[45] Lyskawa L, Janus M, Bria Martel B. Multilayered textile coating based on a betacyclodextrin polyelectrolyte for the controlled release of drugs. Carbohydrate Polymer. 2013; 93: 718–730.
[49] Anon. Background review for cyclodextrins used as excipients. EMA. 2014.
[55]. Anonymous, Questions and Answers on Cyclodextrins in the Context of the Revision of the Guideline on ‘Excipients in the Label and Package Leaflet of Medicinal Products for Human Use’ cpmp/463/00 rev. 1, European Medicinal Agency, London, 2014a, 8.
[56]. Anonymous, Background Review for cyclodextrins used as Excipients, European Medicinal Agency, London, 2014b,17.
[59]. https://www.intechopen.com/books/cyclodextrin-a-versatile-ingredient/aggregation-of-cyclodextrins-fundamental-issues-and-applications.
[62]. Glucksmann A, Reiter LA, Crawford TC. Cyclodextrin-based polymers for therapeutic delivery.US20120202772 A1, 2012.