Novel Semisolid Design Based on Bismuth Oxide (Bi2O3) nanoparticles for radiation protection

Document Type : Original Research Article


1 Industry Health Research Institute (IPIHRI), Occupational and Environmental Health Research Center (OEHRC), PIHO, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Medical Nanotechnology, Islamic Azad University of pharmaceutical sciences (IAUPS), Tehran, Iran

3 Radiation Biology Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Tehran, Iran

4 Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Tehran, Iran


Objective(S): The dangerous effects of X-ray have been elucidated by scientific studies in occupational health hygiene.  X-ray protective like an apron, thyroid shield and gloves have been made of lead (Pb) to protect against X-ray. However, such equipment makes a lot of safety and health problems such as toxicity, weight, inflexibility and troubles usage in a physician. To overcome such problems, X-ray absorbance’s such as semi-solids have been developed. Here in, an investigation was carried out to see whether the mixture of semi-solid material containing bismuth oxide nanoparticles.
Methods: The mixture of semi-solid containing bismuth oxide nanoparticles was prepared based on the synthesis of bismuth oxide nanoparticles and formulation of semisolid. The bismuth oxide nanoparticles were prepared via synthesis method intermediating sorbitol with optimized conditions. In X-ray dosimeter test, the protective effect of bismuth oxide nanoparticles in semisolid was evaluated in comparison to lead adsorbents when all conditions were similar (P<0.05).
Results: X-ray absorbance efficiency of bismuth nanoparticles dispersed in semisolids was more efficient than conventional lead absorbance. The percentage of X-ray absorption in the ointment of bismuth oxide nanoparticles is 56.79 while the absorption value in the 0.5-millimeter lead is between 40% and 42%.
Conclusions: The X-ray absorbent based on semi-solid containing bismuth oxide nanoparticles has many advantages in comparison to conventional lead absorbent such as; high surface area, low amount of sorbent, easy usage, high efficiency of X-ray absorbance, and lower toxic effect on the environment.

Graphical Abstract

Novel Semisolid Design Based on Bismuth Oxide (Bi2O3) nanoparticles for radiation protection


1.Wall B, Kendall G, Edwards A, Bouffler S, Muirhead C, Meara J. What are the risks from medical X-rays and other low dose radiation? The British Journal of Radiology, 2006;79 (940):285-294.
2.Aghamiri M, Mortazavi S, Tayebi M, Mosleh-Shirazi M, Baharvand H, Tavakkoli-Golpayegani A, Zeinali-Rafsanjani B. A novel design for production of efficient flexible lead-free shields against X-ray photons in diagnostic energy range. Journal of Biomedical Physics and Engineering, 2011;1 (1 Dec).
3.Abdollahi H, Shiri I, Atashzar M, Sarebani M, Moloudi K, Samadian H. Radiation protection and secondary cancer prevention using biological radioprotectors in radiotherapy. International Journal of Cancer Therapy and Oncology, 2015;3 (3).
4.Fontainha CC, Baptista N, Annibal T, Faria LO. Radiation shielding with Bi2O3 and ZrO2: Y composites: preparation and characterization.
5.Hulbert SM, Carlson KA. Is lead dust within nuclear medicine departments a hazard to pediatric patients? Journal of nuclear medicine technology, 2009;37 (3):170-172.
6.Shaw S, Chen K, Mejia A. Radiation protection to surgeons’ hands with a novel radiation attenuating lotion. AAOS Annual Meeting: Scientific SE39; 2012.
7.Amini SM, Gilaki M, Karchani M. Safety of nanotechnology in food industries. Electronic physician, 2014;6 (4):962.
8.Samadian H, Mobasheri H, Hasanpour S, Majid RF. Needleless Electrospinning System, an Efficient Platform to Fabricate Carbon Nanofibers. Journal of Nano Research. Vol 50: Trans Tech Publ; 2017:78-89.
9.Fatemi F, Amini SM, Kharrazi S, Rasaee MJ, Mazlomi MA, Asadi-Ghalehni M, Rajabibazl M, Sadroddiny E. Construction of genetically engineered M13K07 helper phage for simultaneous phage display of gold binding peptide 1 and nuclear matrix protein 22 ScFv antibody. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 2017;159 (Supplement C):770-780.
10.Emami T, Madani R, Golchinfar F, Shoushtary A, Amini SM. Comparison of Gold Nanoparticle Conjugated Secondary Antibody with Non-Gold Secondary Antibody in an ELISA Kit Model. Monoclonal antibodies in immunodiagnosis and immunotherapy, 2015;34 (5):366-370.
11.Samadian H, Mobasheri H, Hasanpour S, Faridi Majidi R. Electrospinning of polyacrylonitrile nanofibers and simulation of electric field via finite element method. Nanomedicine Research Journal, 2017;2 (2):87-92.
12.Amini SM, Kharrazi S, Jaafari MR. Radio frequency hyperthermia of cancerous cells with gold nanoclusters: an in vitro investigation. Gold Bulletin, 2017;50 (1):43-50.
13.Amini SM, Kharrazi S, Hadizadeh M, Fateh M, Saber R. Effect of gold nanoparticles on photodynamic efficiency of 5-aminolevolenic acid photosensitiser in epidermal carcinoma cell line: an in vitro study. IET Nanobiotechnology
14.Nambiar S, Osei EK, Yeow JT. Polymer nanocomposite‐based shielding against diagnostic X‐rays. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 2013;127 (6):4939-4946.
15.Smijs TG, Pavel S. Titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles in sunscreens: focus on their safety and effectiveness. Nanotechnology, science and applications, 2011;4:95.
16.Rabin O, Perez JM, Grimm J, Wojtkiewicz G, Weissleder R. An X-ray computed tomography imaging agent based on long-circulating bismuth sulphide nanoparticles. Nature materials, 2006;5 (2):118.
17.Jha R, Pasricha R, Ravi V. Synthesis of bismuth oxide nanoparticles using bismuth nitrate and urea. Ceramics international, 2005;31 (3):495-497.
18.Anilkumar M, Pasricha R, Ravi V. Synthesis of bismuth oxide nanoparticles by citrate gel method. Ceramics international, 2005;31 (6):889-891.
19.Patil M, Deshpande V, Dhage S, Ravi V. Synthesis of bismuth oxide nanoparticles at 100 C. Materials letters, 2005;59 (19):2523-2525.
20.Premjeet S, Ajay B, Sunil K, Bhawana K, Sahil K, Divashish R, Sudeep B. Additives in topical dosage forms. International Journal of Pharmaceutical, Chemical, and Biological Sciences, 2012;2:78-96.
21.Visscher M, Davis J, Wickett R. Effect of topical treatments on irritant hand dermatitis in health care workers. American journal of infection control, 2009;37 (10):842. e841-842. e811.
22.Lu P-J, Huang S-C, Chen Y-P, Chiueh L-C, Shih DY-C. Analysis of titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles in cosmetics. journal of food and drug analysis, 2015;23 (3):587-594.
23.McCaffrey J, Tessier F, Shen H. Radiation shielding materials and radiation scatter effects for interventional radiology (IR) physicians. Medical physics, 2012;39 (7):4537-4546.
24.Leontie L, Caraman M, Alexe M, Harnagea C. Structural and optical characteristics of bismuth oxide thin films. Surface Science, 2002;507-510 (Supplement C):480-485.
25.Mädler L, Pratsinis SE. Bismuth Oxide Nanoparticles by Flame Spray Pyrolysis. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 2002;85 (7):1713-1718.
26.Azman NN, Siddiqui S, Hart R, Low I-M. Effect of particle size, filler loadings and x-ray tube voltage on the transmitted x-ray transmission in tungsten oxide—epoxy composites. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 2013;71 (1):62-67.
27.Botelho M, Künzel R, Okuno E, Levenhagen RS, Basegio T, Bergmann CP. X-ray transmission through nanostructured and microstructured CuO materials. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 2011;69 (2):527-530.
28.Kamusella P, Scheer F, Lüdtke CW, Wiggermann P, Wissgott C, Andresen R. Interventional Angiography: Radiation Protection for the Examiner by using Lead-free Gloves. Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR, 2017;11 (7):TC26.
29.Shah S, Chen K, Mejia A. Radiation protection to surgeons’ hands with a novel radiation attenuating lotion. AAOS Annual Meeting: Scientific SE39; 2012.
30.McCaffrey J, Shen H, Downton B, Mainegra‐Hing E. Radiation attenuation by lead and nonlead materials used in radiation shielding garments. Medical physics, 2007;34 (2):530-537.
31.Schlattl H, Zankl M, Eder H, Hoeschen C. Shielding properties of lead‐free protective clothing and their impact on radiation doses. Medical physics, 2007;34 (11):4270-4280.
32.Movahedi MM, Abdi A, Mehdizadeh A, Dehghan N, Heidari E, Masumi Y, Abbaszadeh M. Novel paint design based on nanopowder to protection against X and gamma rays. Indian journal of nuclear medicine: IJNM: the official journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India, 2014;29 (1):18.